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Table 3 Pilot liveability indicators for Bangkok were mapped onto existing liveability tools (Sustainable Development Goals, CityScan, Healthy Liveable Cities Group Liveability Indicators)

From: What is the meaning of urban liveability for a city in a low-to-middle-income country? Contextualising liveability for Bangkok, Thailand

Urban Liveability Indicators for Bangkok’s ContextaSDGs & Relevant International StandardsUN Global Compact: CityScan [35]Healthy Liveable Cities Group Liveability Indicators [57]
Critical AreaSubcategoryDomainIndicator
Water quality/pollutionbSDGs 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14City SustainabilityWater resource management  
Air qualitySDGs 3, 7, 11, 12, 13
WHO air quality targets
City SustainabilityEnvironmental sustainabilityAmbient environmentAir quality
Tree canopy coverage (shade)SDGs 3, 11, 13, 15
From 2011 GHD report for City of Melbourne [46]: target of 30% of city as tree canopy.
City SustainabilityClimate change mitigation  
FloodingSDGs 1, 3, 9, 11, 13City SustainabilityClimate change impacts and adaptation  
Drinking waterbSDGs 3, 6, 9, 11, 12
WHO drinking water quality targets
City SustainabilityWater resource management  
Waste managementSDGs 9, 11, 12City SustainabilityWaste  
SeweragebSDGs 3, 6, 9, 11, 12City SustainabilityWaste  
Access to fuelbSDGs 7, 9, 11City SustainabilityEnergy  
Food qualitySDGs 2, 3City DevelopmentFood SecurityWalkabilityProximity to supermarkets
Sense of communitySDGs 11City DevelopmentSocial inclusion; Community and culture  
Housing affordabilitySDGs 11City DevelopmentHousing and shelterHousingAffordable housing
Local employment opportunitiesSDGs 1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11City DevelopmentEmploymentEmploymentLive and work in same SA3
Job securitySDGs 1, 4, 8, 9, 10City DevelopmentEmployment  
Work/life balanceSDGs 1, 4, 8, 10City DevelopmentLabour Rights  
Opportunity to earn a fair wageSDGs 1, 4, 8, 9, 10City DevelopmentEmployment  
Mass transit availability; Public transport networks; Transit-oriented developmentsSDGs 3, 11, 13City SustainabilityMobilityTransportProximal access to public transport
Traffic congestionSDGs 11City SustainabilityMobility  
Passive recreation and physical activity locationsSDGs 3, 11, 13, 15City Sustainability; City DevelopmentClimate change mitigation; Community and cultureGreen infrastructureSize of public open spaces; distance to public open spaces
Green space, pocket parksSDGs 3, 11, 13, 15City Sustainability; City DevelopmentClimate change mitigation; Community and cultureGreen infrastructureSize of public open spaces; distance to public open spaces
Access to temples, museums, music and other cultural events; Multi-purpose local community centresSDGs 11City DevelopmentCommunity and cultureSocial infrastructureCulture and leisure (cinema/theatres, museums, art galleries, libraries, community centres)
SafetySDGs 10, 11, 16City DevelopmentPublic safety  
EducationSDGs 4, 8City DevelopmentEducationSocial infrastructureEducation (state primary schools, state secondary schools)
HealthSDGs 2, 3, 10, 11City DevelopmentHealth and wellbeingSocial infrastructureAccess to health and social services
Local amenity (neighbourhood access to services and employment)SDGs 8, 9, 11City DevelopmentAccess to employmentSocial infrastructure; employmentAll (education, sport and recreation, culture and leisure, early years, community centres, health and social services); live and work in same SA3
  1. Key: SDGs Sustainable Development Goals, WHO World Health Organization, GHD GHD Pty Ltd., SA3 Statistical Area 3 (from Australian Bureau of Statistics)
  2. aThe liveability indicators for Bangkok were identified through the Urban Liveability Workshop and/or international liveability literature
  3. bIndicator was not a salient theme of the Urban Liveability Workshop, but was identified as an important aspect of liveability in the international literature