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Table 2 CPA strategies used by the food industry in Colombia in 2019 (categories are not mutually exclusive)

From: “The architecture of the state was transformed in favour of the interests of companies”: corporate political activity of the food industry in Colombia

  Instrumental strategies Discursive strategies
Coalition management Information management Direct involvement and influence in policy Legal strategies
Food industry actor
 Coca Cola 4 4 2 0 12
 Danone/Alqueria 12 8 1 0 6
 Ferrero 0 0 0 0 0
 General Mills 0 0 0 0 0
 Grupo Bimbo 0 0 0 0 0
 Kellogg 1 1 0 0 0
 Mars 1 0 0 0 0
 McDonald’s 5 3 0 0 1
 Mondelez 0 0 0 0 0
 Nestlé 7 22 0 0 14
 PepsiCo 1 2 0 0 2
 Unilever 1 2 0 0 0
 Grupo Nutresa 13 5 1 0 13
 Postobón 11 2 1 0 29
 Colanta 8 3 0 0 0
 Alpina 0 3 0 0 0
 Grupo Éxito 24 9 0 0 18
 Asociación Colombiana de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos (ACTA) 1 3 1 0 2
 Asociación Nacional de Empresarios de Colombia (ANDI) 9 11 7 0 21
 ILSI Nor-Andino 2 15 0 0 0
 Multiple actors for the campaigns “Decido lo que como” and “Bebidas de tu lado” 1 13 2 0 21