Skip to main content

Table 1 The descriptive statistics of demographic information, impact due to COVID-19, and scores from scales or questionnaires

From: The relationship between 2019-nCoV and psychological distress among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder

Variables Total participants (n = 6726) ASD family (n = 1764) TDC family (n = 4962) χ2 / t P
Demographic characteristics
Province, n (%)
 Heilongjiang 3805 (56.6%) 997 (56.5%) 2808 (56.6%)   
 Henan 1507 (22.4%) 398 (22.6%) 1109 (22.3%)   
 Fujian 1414 (21.0%) 369 (20.9%) 1045 (21.1%) .040 .981
Parents’ gender, n (%)
 Male 1017 (15.1%) 246 (13.9%) 771 (15.5%)   
 Female 5709 (84.9%) 1518 (86.1%) 4191 (84.5%) 2.572 .113
Parents’ age (years), n (%)
 20 ~ 30 1270 (18.9%) 350 (19.8%) 920 (18.5%)   
 31 ~ 40 4086 (60.7%) 1038 (58.8%) 3048 (61.4%)   
 41 ~ 50 1302 (19.4%) 359 (20.4%) 943 (19.0%)   
 51 ~ 60 68 (1.0%) 17 (1.0%) 51 (1.0%) 3.868 .276
Parents’ health status, n (%)
 Well 6506 (96.7%) 1639 (92.9%) 4867 (98.1%)   
 Diseased 220 (3.3%) 125 (7.1%) 95 (1.9%) 110.009 <.001
Parents’ education, n (%)
 Secondary school or below 2611 (38.8%) 683 (38.7%) 1928 (38.9%)   
 High school or same level 2518 (37.4%) 729 (41.3%) 1789 (36.1%)   
 College or same level 1441 (21.4%) 317 (18.0%) 1124 (22.7%)   
 Postgraduate 156 (2.3%) 35 (2.0%) 121 (2.4%) 24.142 <.001
Parents’ occupation, n (%)
 Manual workers 2119 (31.5%) 395 (22.4%) 1724 (34.7%)   
 Mental workers 2182 (32.4%) 420 (23.8%) 1762 (35.5%)   
 Unemployed 1738 (25.8%) 755 (42.8%) 983 (19.8%)   
 Others 687 (10.2%) 194 (11.0%) 493 (9.9%) 385.557 <.001
Child’s gender, n (%)
 Male 3819 (56.8%) 1297 (73.5%) 2522 (50.8%)   
 Female 2907 (43.2%) 467 (26.5%) 2440 (49.2%) 273.251 <.001
Child’s age (years), n (%)
 Up to 3 424 (6.3%) 187 (10.6%) 237 (4.8%)   
 3 ~ 6 2870 (42.7%) 801 (45.4%) 2069 (41.7%)   
 6 ~ 12 2436 (36.2%) 472 (26.8%) 1964 (39.6%)   
 12 ~ 18 996 (14.8%) 304 (17.2%) 692 (13.9%) 142.822 <.001
Only child in the family, n (%)
 Yes 3641 (54.1%) 1003 (56.9%) 2638 (53.2%)   
 No 3085 (45.9%) 761 (43.1%) 2324 (46.8%) 7.157 .008
Parents’ marital status, n (%)
 Married 6383 (94.9%) 1641 (93.0%) 4742 (95.6%)   
 Divorced or widowed 343 (5.1%) 123 (7.0%) 220 (4.4%) 17.336 <.001
Family income per month, n (%)
  < 3000 1798 (26.7%) 648 (36.7%) 1150 (23.2%)   
 3000 ~ 6000 2511 (37.3%) 641 (36.3%) 1870 (37.7%)   
 6001 ~ 9000 1171 (17.4%) 218 (12.4%) 953 (19.2%)   
 9001 ~ 12,000 577 (8.6%) 118 (6.7%) 459 (9.3%)   
 12,001 ~ 15,000 284 (4.2%) 50 (2.8%) 234 (4.7%)   
  > 15,000 358 (5.7%) 89 (5.0%) 296 (6.0%) 147.960 <.001
Impact due to COVID-19 crisis
Parents’ identity, n (%)
 General public 6305 (93.7%) 1682 (95.4%) 4623 (93.2%)   
 Isolated public 38 (0.6%) 17 (1.0%) 21 (0.4%)   
 Front-line staff 383 (5.7%) 65 (3.7%) 318 (6.4%) 24.348 <.001
Relationship changes, n (%)
 Increased 525 (7.8%) 160 (9.1%) 365 (7.4%)   
 No change 4942 (73.5%) 1293 (73.3%) 3649 (73.5%)   
 Decreased 1259 (18.7%) 311 (17.6%) 948 (19.1%) 6.423 .040
Physical Exercise changes, n (%)
 Better 887 (13.2%) 179 (10.1%) 708 (14.3%)   
 No change 2250 (33.5%) 571 (32.4%) 1679 (33.8%)   
 Worse 3589 (53.4%) 1014 (57.5%) 2575 (51.9%) 25.214 <.001
Dietary changes, n (%)
 Better 986 (14.7%) 209 (11.8%) 777 (15.7%)   
 No change 4239 (63.0%) 1103 (62.5%) 3136 (63.2%)   
 Worse 1501 (22.3%) 452 (25.6%) 1049 (21.1%) 24.705 <.001
Income changes, n (%)
 Normal income 2105 (31.3%) 416 (23.6%) 1689 (34.0%)   
 Partial income 2774 (41.2%) 703 (39.9%) 2071 (41.7%)   
 No income 1847 (27.5%) 645 (36.6%) 1202 (24.2%) 118.750 <.001
Psychological stress, (M, SD)
 Low 2062 (30.7%) 584 (33.1%) 1478 (29.8%)   
 Relatively low 1655 (24.6%) 417 (23.6%) 1238 (24.9%)   
 Relatively high 1474 (21.9%) 357 (20.2%) 1117 (22.5%)   
 high 1535 (22.8%) 406 (23.0%) 1129 (22.8%) 8.695 0.034
Psychological assessment
Resilience, (M, SD)
 Total score 70.3 ± 18.5 66.4 ± 19.5 71.7 ± 18.0 10.308 <.001
 Tenacity 34.7 ± 10.3 32.7 ± 10.6 35.4 ± 10.1 9.581 <.001
 Strength 24.6 ± 6.1 23.3 ± 6.5 25.0 ± 5.9 10.201 <.001
 Optimism 11.0 ± 3.4 10.4 ± 3.5 11.2 ± 3.3 8.970 <.001
Coping style, (M, SD)
 Total score 35.1 ± 9.2 34.5 ± 9.6 35.4 ± 9.1 3.339 .001
 Positive coping 25.1 ± 6.7 24.1 ± 7.0 25.4 ± 6.6 7.017 <.001
 Negative coping 10.1 ± 4.9 10.4 ± 4.9 10.0 ± 4.9 −3.310 .001
Anxiety, (M, SD)/ n (%) 37.4 ± 8.2 38.7 ± 9.3 36.9 ± 7.7 −7.583 <.001
 None 6183 (92.0%) 1548 (87.8%) 4635 (93.4%)   
 Mild 427 (6.3%) 159 (9.0%) 268 (5.4%)   
 Moderate 101 (1.5%) 47 (2.7%) 54 (1.1%)   
 Severe 15 (0.2%) 10 (0.6%) 5 (0.1%) 65.486 <.001
Depression, (M, SD)/ n (%) 41.3 ± 11.7 43.7 ± 12.7 40.5 ± 11.2 −10.102 <.001
 None 5101 (75.8%) 1218 (69.0%) 3883 (78.3%)   
 Mild 973 (14.5%) 275 (15.6%) 698 (14.1%)   
 Moderate 567 (8.4%) 221 (12.5%) 346 (7.0%)   
 Severe 85 (1.3%) 50 (2.8%) 35 (0.7%) 110.954 <.001
  1. ASD autism spectrum disorder, TDC typically developmental children, M mean, AD standard deviation